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初中英语语法基础知识详解——冠词及数词
来源:     作者:     发布时间:2019-07-09     点击量:86

冠词



1、冠词分类及读法:


英语中冠词有不定冠词和定冠词两种,常放在名词的前面,用来限定名词的意义,起泛指或特指的作用。


定冠词the读法:单独念时读[Ti:],在句子中常发[Ti ](元音之前)或者[T[](辅音之前);


不定冠词a/an的读法:单独念时读 [ei ]/[An ];在句子中常发 [[]/[[n]。  



2、不定冠词a / an的用法:


不定冠词a /an用在单数名词的前面,a用在辅音开头的词前面;an用在元音开头的词的前面。



不定冠词的基本用法:


(1)表示某一个人或东西,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:There is a dog lying on the ground.


(2)表示某类人或事物,以区别于其他种类。如:A elephant is much stronger than a man.


(3)表示某类人或事物中的任何一个。如:He is a teacher of English.


(4)表示“一”这个数量。如:There is a table and four chairs in that dining-room.


几个用不定冠词的习语:a bit(一点),a little(一点),a few(几个),a lot(许多),a kind of(一种),a pair of(一副、一双),a number of(大量的),a piece of (一张、一片),half an hour(半小时),have a good time(玩得开心),have a cold(感冒),make a noise(发出嘈杂声),have/take a (rest等)(休息)一会儿,等等。



3、定冠词the的用法:


定冠词the用在可数名词的单数或复数或不可数的名词前面。



定冠词的基本用法:


(1)表示特指的人或事物。如:The man with a flower in his hand is Jack.


(2)指谈话双方都熟悉的人或事物。如:Look at the blackboard, Lily.


(3)复述前面提到过的人或事物。如:There is a man under the tree. The man is called Robert.


(4)表示世界上独一无二的事物。如:The earth turns around the sun.


(5)用在表示方位的名词前面。如:There will be strong wind to the south of the Yangtze River。


(6)在序数词和形容词最高级的前面。如:Who is the first one to go? / Of all the stars, the sun is the nearest to the earth.



(7)常用在乐器名称的前面。如:He began to play the violin at the age of 5.


(8)用在江河、海洋、山脉等名称的前面。如:I have never been tothe Himalaya Mountains.


(9)用在含有普通名词的专有名词的前面。如:He is from the United States of America.


(10)用在姓氏之前表示一家人。如:The Greens are going to Mount Emei next month.


(11)same之前一般用the。如:Lucy and Lily look the same.


(12)几个用定冠词的习语:at the same time(与此同时),make the bed(铺床),in the end(最后),all the time(一直),by the way(顺便说一下),on the way(在路上)等等。



4、一些不用冠词的情况:


(1)专有名词和(第一次使用)一些不可数名词时前面通常不用。如:China is a very large country.(中国是个大国) / Man needs air and water.


(2)名词前已有指示、物主或不定代词作定语时不用。如:My pen is much more expensive than yours.


(3)周名,月名或季节名前一般不用。如:He was born on Monday,February 18,1995.(他出生在1995年二月十八日,星期一) / They usually plant trees on the hills in spring. 


(4) (第一次使用)复数名词表示人或事物的类别时不用。如:Men are cleverer than monkeys.(人比猴子聪明)



(5)三餐饭前不用。如:We have breakfast at home and lunch at school.节、假日前一般不用。如:On Children’s Day the boys often get presents from their parents.球类名词前不用。如:The children play football on Saturday afternoons.


(6)城市的重要/主要建筑物名称前不用。如:They are now at People’s Cinema.   


(7)  一些习惯用语中不用。


如:⑴ at / to / from / out of / after / for school;


⑵ in / to / for / after class; 


⑶in / to / out of / into bed; 


⑷ after / at/ from / out of / to work; 


⑸ at / to sea; 


⑹ in / from / down / to town;


⑺ at / from home; 


⑻ at / for / to breakfast/lunch/supper; 


⑼ at night/noon/midnight; 


⑽ on foot; 


⑾ go to school/bed; 


⑿ on top of; 


⒀ in front of; 


⒁ on show/display/duty/watch; 


⒂ in / out of hospital; 


⒃ at all; 


⒄ on/in time; 


⒅ at first/last/once; 


⒆ in Chinese/English, etc.; 


⒇ take care of



数词


一、分类:数词有基数词和序数词两种。英语的数词可以作句子的主语、宾语、表语和定语。


(一)基数词:表示数目的词叫基数词。


1、英语中常用的基数词有:



1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


11


12


one


two


three


four


five


six


seven


eight


nine


ten


eleven


twelve




13


14


15


16


17


18


19





thirteen


fourteen


fifteen


sixteen


seventeen


eighteen


nineteen






20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


100



twenty


thirty


forty


fifty


sixty


seventy


eighty


ninety


one(a) hundred





23



35







101





twenty-three



thirty-five







one hundred and one




1000→one(a) thousand;


10000→ ten thousand,100000→one hundred thousand ;


1000000→one million,10000000→ten million, 100000000→one hundred million;


108→one hundred and eight;


146→one hundred and forty-six;


500→five hundred;


1001→one thousand and one;


1813→one thousand eight hundred and thirteen.  



2、[注]:


(1)百位与十位之间要加and;十万位和万位,亿位和千万位之间通常也要加and。


(2)英语用千、百万等单位计数,大数字从右向左看,每隔三位划一逗号,倒数第一个逗号之前要用thousand,倒数第二个逗号之前要用million,倒数第三的逗号之前要用billion表示。


(3)hundred、 thousand、 million作数词时,不用复数,前面可以加上one, two, …等其它数词。用作名词时复数表示“成…上…”,后面必须要有of,前面可以加上some,many,several等词。如:five hundred(五百),hundreds of(成百上千的),ten thousand(一万),thousands of(成千上万的),millions of(成百万的)



(二)序数词:表示顺序的数词叫序数词。


1、 英语的序数词基本变法:


(1)一般在基数词后加th,    (2)-ve结尾的改为-fth,


(3)-ty结尾的改为-tieth,    (4)熟记特殊词。



2、序数词如下:


1st


2nd


3rd


4th


5th


6th


7th


8th


9th


10th


11th


12th


※first


※second


※third


fourth


fifth


sixth


seventh


eighth


ninth


tenth


eleventh


twelfth




13th


14th


15th


16th


17th


18th


19th





thirteenth


fourteenth


fifteenth


sixteenth


seventeenth


eighteenth


nineteenth






20th


30th


40th


50th


60th


70th


80th


90th


100th



twentieth


thirtieth


fortieth


fiftieth


sixtieth


seventieth


eightieth


ninetieth


one undredth



21st


22nd


23rd



35th







101st



twenty-first


twenty-second


twenty-third



thirty-fifth







one hundred and first




1000th→one thousandth;


1000000th →one millionth;


第703→the seven hundred and third;


第5480→the five thousand four hundred and eightieth.



3、[注]:


(1)两位以上的序数词仅个位数部分用序数词,其余部分仍用基数词。如:thirty-sixth,


(2)使用序数词时一般加定冠词the. 如:I’m in the third grade.


(3)序数词作“几分之几”讲时,有复数形式。


如:1/5→one fifth ; 2/3→ two thirds ; 4/7→ four sevenths ; 1/2→ a half ; 1/4→a quarter ; 3/4→ three quarters ; 50%→ fifty hundredths ( fifty per cent).


(三)数词的用法:



1、表示年份:2002: twenty thousand and two ; 1976 : nineteen seventy-six.


2、表示日期:12月1日: Dec.1st或the first of December;2002年11月8日: Nov. 8th, 2002.


3、表示时刻:5:15→ five fifteen或a quarter past five ; 8:30→ eight thirty或half past eight ;10:45→ ten forty-five或a quarter to eleven.



4、表示编号:Room 105→Room one 0 five; Bus No.13→Bus Number Thirteen;P.5→Page Five; Tel.No.7658659→Telephone Number seven-six-five-eight-six-five-nine


5、小数的读法:5.7→ five point seven,  0.16 →zero point one six.


6、“半”的表达:1/2→half, 半小时→half an hour,1.5小时→one and a half hours或one hour and a half.  


7、序数词前面加the时,表示顺序,加a/an时表示“再一、又一”。如:The third lesson is rather difficult. / Shall we read the text a third time?


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